Changes between Initial Version and Version 1 of TracStandalone

Dec 24, 2012, 8:38:01 PM (9 years ago)



  • TracStandalone

    v1 v1  
     1** Note: this page documents the version 1.0 of Trac, see [[0.12/TracStandalone]] if you need the previous version **
     2= Tracd =
     4Tracd is a lightweight standalone Trac web server.
     5It can be used in a variety of situations, from a test or development server to a multiprocess setup behind another web server used as a load balancer.
     7== Pros ==
     9 * Fewer dependencies: You don't need to install apache or any other web-server.
     10 * Fast: Should be almost as fast as the [wiki:TracModPython mod_python] version (and much faster than the [wiki:TracCgi CGI]), even more so since version 0.12 where the HTTP/1.1 version of the protocol is enabled by default
     11 * Automatic reloading: For development, Tracd can be used in ''auto_reload'' mode, which will automatically restart the server whenever you make a change to the code (in Trac itself or in a plugin).
     13== Cons ==
     15 * Fewer features: Tracd implements a very simple web-server and is not as configurable or as scalable as Apache httpd.
     16 * No native HTTPS support: [ sslwrap] can be used instead,
     17   or [ stunnel -- a tutorial on how to use stunnel with tracd] or Apache with mod_proxy.
     19== Usage examples ==
     21A single project on port 8080. (http://localhost:8080/)
     23 $ tracd -p 8080 /path/to/project
     25Stricly speaking this will make your Trac accessible to everybody from your network rather than ''localhost only''. To truly limit it use ''--hostname'' option.
     27 $ tracd --hostname=localhost -p 8080 /path/to/project
     29With more than one project. (http://localhost:8080/project1/ and http://localhost:8080/project2/)
     31 $ tracd -p 8080 /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2
     34You can't have the last portion of the path identical between the projects since Trac uses that name to keep the URLs of the
     35different projects unique. So if you use `/project1/path/to` and `/project2/path/to`, you will only see the second project.
     37An alternative way to serve multiple projects is to specify a parent directory in which each subdirectory is a Trac project, using the `-e` option. The example above could be rewritten:
     39 $ tracd -p 8080 -e /path/to
     42To exit the server on Windows, be sure to use {{{CTRL-BREAK}}} -- using {{{CTRL-C}}} will leave a Python process running in the background.
     44== Installing as a Windows Service ==
     46=== Option 1 ===
     47To install as a Windows service, get the [ SRVANY] utility and run:
     49 C:\path\to\instsrv.exe tracd C:\path\to\srvany.exe
     50 reg add HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\tracd\Parameters /v Application /d "\"C:\path\to\python.exe\" \"C:\path\to\python\scripts\\" <your tracd parameters>"
     51 net start tracd
     54'''DO NOT''' use {{{tracd.exe}}}.  Instead register {{{python.exe}}} directly with {{{}}} as a parameter.  If you use {{{tracd.exe}}}, it will spawn the python process without SRVANY's knowledge.  This python process will survive a {{{net stop tracd}}}.
     56If you want tracd to start automatically when you boot Windows, do:
     58 sc config tracd start= auto
     61The spacing here is important.
     64Once the service is installed, it might be simpler to run the Registry Editor rather than use the `reg add` command documented above.  Navigate to:[[BR]]
     67Three (string) parameters are provided:
     68||!AppDirectory ||C:\Python26\ ||
     69||Application ||python.exe ||
     70||!AppParameters ||scripts\ -p 8080 ... ||
     72Note that, if the !AppDirectory is set as above, the paths of the executable ''and'' of the script name and parameter values are relative to the directory.  This makes updating Python a little simpler because the change can be limited, here, to a single point.
     73(This is true for the path to the .htpasswd file, as well, despite the documentation calling out the /full/path/to/htpasswd; however, you may not wish to store that file under the Python directory.)
     76For Windows 7 User, srvany.exe may not be an option, so you can use [ WINSERV] utility and run:
     78"C:\path\to\winserv.exe" install tracd -displayname "tracd" -start auto "C:\path\to\python.exe" c:\path\to\python\scripts\ <your tracd parameters>"
     80net start tracd
     83=== Option 2 ===
     85Use [ WindowsServiceScript], available at [ Trac Hacks]. Installs, removes, starts, stops, etc. your Trac service.
     87=== Option 3 ===
     89also cygwin's cygrunsrv.exe can be used:
     91$ cygrunsrv --install tracd --path /cygdrive/c/Python27/Scripts/tracd.exe --args '--port 8000 --env-parent-dir E:\IssueTrackers\Trac\Projects'
     92$ net start tracd
     95== Using Authentication ==
     97Tracd provides support for both Basic and Digest authentication. Digest is considered more secure. The examples below use Digest; to use Basic authentication, replace `--auth` with `--basic-auth` in the command line.
     99The general format for using authentication is:
     101 $ tracd -p port --auth="base_project_dir,password_file_path,realm" project_path
     104 * '''base_project_dir''': the base directory of the project specified as follows:
     105   * when serving multiple projects: ''relative'' to the `project_path`
     106   * when serving only a single project (`-s`): the name of the project directory
     107 Don't use an absolute path here as this won't work. ''Note:'' This parameter is case-sensitive even for environments on Windows.
     108 * '''password_file_path''': path to the password file
     109 * '''realm''': the realm name (can be anything)
     110 * '''project_path''': path of the project
     112 * **`--auth`** in the above means use Digest authentication, replace `--auth` with `--basic-auth` if you want to use Basic auth.  Although Basic authentication does not require a "realm", the command parser does, so the second comma is required, followed directly by the closing quote for an empty realm name.
     117 $ tracd -p 8080 \
     118   --auth="project1,/path/to/passwordfile," /path/to/project1
     121Of course, the password file can be be shared so that it is used for more than one project:
     123 $ tracd -p 8080 \
     124   --auth="project1,/path/to/passwordfile," \
     125   --auth="project2,/path/to/passwordfile," \
     126   /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2
     129Another way to share the password file is to specify "*" for the project name:
     131 $ tracd -p 8080 \
     132   --auth="*,/path/to/users.htdigest," \
     133   /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2
     136=== Basic Authorization: Using a htpasswd password file ===
     137This section describes how to use `tracd` with Apache .htpasswd files.
     139  Note: It is necessary (at least with Python 2.6) to install the fcrypt package in order to
     140  decode some htpasswd formats.  Trac source code attempt an `import crypt` first, but there
     141  is no such package for Python 2.6. Only `SHA-1` passwords (since Trac 1.0) work without this module.
     143To create a .htpasswd file use Apache's `htpasswd` command (see [#GeneratingPasswordsWithoutApache below] for a method to create these files without using Apache):
     145 $ sudo htpasswd -c /path/to/env/.htpasswd username
     147then for additional users:
     149 $ sudo htpasswd /path/to/env/.htpasswd username2
     152Then to start `tracd` run something like this:
     154 $ tracd -p 8080 --basic-auth="projectdirname,/fullpath/environmentname/.htpasswd,realmname" /fullpath/environmentname
     157For example:
     159 $ tracd -p 8080 --basic-auth="testenv,/srv/tracenv/testenv/.htpasswd,My Test Env" /srv/tracenv/testenv
     161''Note:'' You might need to pass "-m" as a parameter to htpasswd on some platforms (OpenBSD).
     163=== Digest authentication: Using a htdigest password file ===
     165If you have Apache available, you can use the htdigest command to generate the password file. Type 'htdigest' to get some usage instructions, or read [ this page] from the Apache manual to get precise instructions.  You'll be prompted for a password to enter for each user that you create.  For the name of the password file, you can use whatever you like, but if you use something like `users.htdigest` it will remind you what the file contains. As a suggestion, put it in your <projectname>/conf folder along with the [TracIni trac.ini] file.
     167Note that you can start tracd without the `--auth` argument, but if you click on the ''Login'' link you will get an error.
     169=== Generating Passwords Without Apache ===
     171Basic Authorization can be accomplished via this [ online HTTP Password generator] which also supports `SHA-1`.  Copy the generated password-hash line to the .htpasswd file on your system. Note that Windows Python lacks the "crypt" module that is the default hash type for htpasswd ; Windows Python can grok MD5 password hashes just fine and you should use MD5.
     173You can use this simple Python script to generate a '''digest''' password file:
     177from optparse import OptionParser
     178# The md5 module is deprecated in Python 2.5
     180    from hashlib import md5
     181except ImportError:
     182    from md5 import md5
     183realm = 'trac'
     185# build the options
     186usage = "usage: %prog [options]"
     187parser = OptionParser(usage=usage)
     188parser.add_option("-u", "--username",action="store", dest="username", type = "string",
     189                  help="the username for whom to generate a password")
     190parser.add_option("-p", "--password",action="store", dest="password", type = "string",
     191                  help="the password to use")
     192parser.add_option("-r", "--realm",action="store", dest="realm", type = "string",
     193                  help="the realm in which to create the digest")
     194(options, args) = parser.parse_args()
     196# check options
     197if (options.username is None) or (options.password is None):
     198   parser.error("You must supply both the username and password")
     199if (options.realm is not None):
     200   realm = options.realm
     202# Generate the string to enter into the htdigest file
     203kd = lambda x: md5(':'.join(x)).hexdigest()
     204print ':'.join((options.username, realm, kd([options.username, realm, options.password])))
     207Note: If you use the above script you must set the realm in the `--auth` argument to '''`trac`'''. Example usage (assuming you saved the script as
     210 $ python -u username -p password >> c:\digest.txt
     211 $ tracd --port 8000 --auth=proj_name,c:\digest.txt,trac c:\path\to\proj_name
     214==== Using `md5sum`
     215It is possible to use `md5sum` utility to generate digest-password file:
     221echo ${user}:${realm}:$(printf "${user}:${realm}:${password}" | md5sum - | sed -e 's/\s\+-//') > ${path_to_file}
     224== Reference ==
     226Here's the online help, as a reminder (`tracd --help`):
     228Usage: tracd [options] [projenv] ...
     231  --version             show program's version number and exit
     232  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
     233  -a DIGESTAUTH, --auth=DIGESTAUTH
     234                        [projectdir],[htdigest_file],[realm]
     235  --basic-auth=BASICAUTH
     236                        [projectdir],[htpasswd_file],[realm]
     237  -p PORT, --port=PORT  the port number to bind to
     238  -b HOSTNAME, --hostname=HOSTNAME
     239                        the host name or IP address to bind to
     240  --protocol=PROTOCOL   http|scgi|ajp|fcgi
     241  -q, --unquote         unquote PATH_INFO (may be needed when using ajp)
     242  --http10              use HTTP/1.0 protocol version instead of HTTP/1.1
     243  --http11              use HTTP/1.1 protocol version (default)
     244  -e PARENTDIR, --env-parent-dir=PARENTDIR
     245                        parent directory of the project environments
     246  --base-path=BASE_PATH
     247                        the initial portion of the request URL's "path"
     248  -r, --auto-reload     restart automatically when sources are modified
     249  -s, --single-env      only serve a single project without the project list
     250  -d, --daemonize       run in the background as a daemon
     251  --pidfile=PIDFILE     when daemonizing, file to which to write pid
     252  --umask=MASK          when daemonizing, file mode creation mask to use, in
     253                        octal notation (default 022)
     254  --group=GROUP         the group to run as
     255  --user=USER           the user to run as
     258Use the -d option so that tracd doesn't hang if you close the terminal window where tracd was started.
     260== Tips ==
     262=== Serving static content ===
     264If `tracd` is the only web server used for the project,
     265it can also be used to distribute static content
     266(tarballs, Doxygen documentation, etc.)
     268This static content should be put in the `$TRAC_ENV/htdocs` folder,
     269and is accessed by URLs like `<project_URL>/chrome/site/...`.
     271Example: given a `$TRAC_ENV/htdocs/software-0.1.tar.gz` file,
     272the corresponding relative URL would be `/<project_name>/chrome/site/software-0.1.tar.gz`,
     273which in turn can be written as `htdocs:software-0.1.tar.gz` (TracLinks syntax) or `[/<project_name>/chrome/site/software-0.1.tar.gz]` (relative link syntax).
     275 ''Support for `htdocs:` TracLinks syntax was added in version 0.10''
     277=== Using tracd behind a proxy
     279In some situations when you choose to use tracd behind Apache or another web server.
     281In this situation, you might experience issues with redirects, like being redirected to URLs with the wrong host or protocol. In this case (and only in this case), setting the `[trac] use_base_url_for_redirect` to `true` can help, as this will force Trac to use the value of `[trac] base_url` for doing the redirects.
     283If you're using the AJP protocol to connect with `tracd` (which is possible if you have flup installed), then you might experience problems with double quoting. Consider adding the `--unquote` parameter.
     285See also [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp], [trac:TracNginxRecipe].
     287=== Authentication for tracd behind a proxy
     288It is convenient to provide central external authentication to your tracd instances, instead of using {{{--basic-auth}}}. There is some discussion about this in #9206.
     290Below is example configuration based on Apache 2.2, mod_proxy, mod_authnz_ldap.
     292First we bring tracd into Apache's location namespace.
     295<Location /project/proxified>
     296        Require ldap-group cn=somegroup, ou=Groups,
     297        Require ldap-user somespecificusertoo
     298        ProxyPass http://localhost:8101/project/proxified/
     299        # Turns out we don't really need complicated RewriteRules here at all
     300        RequestHeader set REMOTE_USER %{REMOTE_USER}s
     304Then we need a single file plugin to recognize HTTP_REMOTE_USER header as valid authentication source. HTTP headers like '''HTTP_FOO_BAR''' will get converted to '''Foo-Bar''' during processing. Name it something like '''''' and drop it into '''proxified/plugins''' directory:
     307from trac.core import *
     308from trac.config import BoolOption
     309from trac.web.api import IAuthenticator
     311class MyRemoteUserAuthenticator(Component):
     313    implements(IAuthenticator)
     315    obey_remote_user_header = BoolOption('trac', 'obey_remote_user_header', 'false',
     316               """Whether the 'Remote-User:' HTTP header is to be trusted for user logins
     317                (''since ??.??').""")
     319    def authenticate(self, req):
     320        if self.obey_remote_user_header and req.get_header('Remote-User'):
     321            return req.get_header('Remote-User')
     322        return None
     326Add this new parameter to your TracIni:
     331obey_remote_user_header = true
     335Run tracd:
     337tracd -p 8101 -r -s proxified --base-path=/project/proxified
     340Note that if you want to install this plugin for all projects, you have to put it in your [TracPlugins#Plugindiscovery global plugins_dir] and enable it in your global trac.ini.
     342Global config (e.g. `/srv/trac/conf/trac.ini`):
     345remote-user-auth.* = enabled
     347plugins_dir = /srv/trac/plugins
     349obey_remote_user_header = true
     352Environment config (e.g. `/srv/trac/envs/myenv`):
     355file = /srv/trac/conf/trac.ini
     358=== Serving a different base path than / ===
     359Tracd supports serving projects with different base urls than /<project>. The parameter name to change this is
     361 $ tracd --base-path=/some/path
     365See also: TracInstall, TracCgi, TracModPython, TracGuide, [trac:TracOnWindowsStandalone#RunningTracdasservice Running tracd.exe as a Windows service]